Monday, January 13, 2020

Agricultural Farmland Investments Essay

If you are worried about inflation, the best investments to protect yourself are so-called real assets that will rise in value along with inflation. If you are interested in a real asset that pays good current income and dividends, hedges against inflation and also has tremendous value, consider farmland investments. We took farmland as an investment and sees agriculture as the premiere asset class for the next decade. Why invest in farmland? Green World believes that farmland is among the best alternative investments for retail investors. In keeping with Green World’s theory that it is important for any investment to be on the right side of global macro trends, and as the graph from the UN demonstrates, the amount of arable land worldwide is dwindling. Simultaneously, the world’s population is forecast to jump to more than 9 billion by 2050 from 6.9 billion today. Simple economic principles of supply and demand dictate that when there is an increasing shortage of an asset combined with growing demand for it, the prices of that asset are likely to go up. This trend and the accompanying high prices for agricultural commodities has created a substantial concern amongst world governments around the issue of â€Å"food security† and has led many large institutional investors – including governments – to launch agriculture and farmland funds. Shrinking Arable Land and Global Food Security Just to summarize, the points below provide a good overview of reasons for including farmland in your portfolio: 1) Food inflation looks set to continue for the foreseeable future, as the amount of arable land globally is actually shrinking whilst the global population is continuing to grow. To meet growing global food demand the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization estimates an extra six million hectares of additional farmland investment is needed every year for the next 30 years, creating a massive new opportunity for farmland investors. 2) Northen part continue to use Quantitative Easing to create new money on a massive scale. Farmland is an excellent hedge against inflation, which, is the inevitable effects of this printed money entering the real economy. 3) Farmland pays high current income and dividends from the sale of crops. As interest rates are near zero and likely to stay that way for some time, prudent savers are forced to look elsewhere for current in come. Farmland is an excellent option for obtaining that income. 4) Farmland stands out as an asset class that can be a safe haven from global financial and economic instability, as it provides diversification to a portfolio since farmland does not respond to the same factors as those which influence financial assets such as stocks and bonds. 5) Finally, investing in farmland is also a play on China’s continued rapid growth. One of the places where arable farmland is shrinking quite fast due to development is China, and indeed China has now become a net food importer, causing great worry in the government about the issue of â€Å"food security†. With US$3.1 trillion of reserves, when China wants or needs something, it goes out and buys it. Food and farmland are no exception, and indeed China has been buying farmland all around the world. One other point worth noting is that Dream World’s favorite investing on a huge proponent of investing in farmland. They believe that we are only in the â€Å"third inning† of the farmland story, and the asset class still has plenty of room to run. It is also worth noting that it also â€Å"eats his own cooking† so to speak, as he offers two farmland funds targeted at institutional investors, one of which invests in different allocations of farmland in India of Dream World’s farmland projects is located. The next question to consider is how to invest in farmland? You could, of course, invest in a Dream World farmland fund, but Dream World funds target high net worth for institutions with minimum requirements of thousands of Rupees. Dream World, by contrast, offers direct farmland investments for retail investors, with minimum requirements as low as Rs.5000.00. Furthermore, Dream World’s farmland investment projects provide for the direct ownership of the underlying agricultural land – i.e. the retail investor actually owns farmland directly, rather than having indirect exposure through an expensive farmland hedge fund. It is now possible for individual investors to make direct investing in farmland a part of their portfolio, as there are an increasing number of projects where large tracts of land are purchased, and then individual parcels are sold directly to retail investors. These investments are a full â€Å"soup-to-nuts solution,† as everything from the cultivation of the land to the planting and harvesting and the sale of the sale of the crops are performed by an existing farm manager who is part of the project. That means these are perfect passive investments for individuals looking to diversify their portfolios. The aims of the participatory process in the project were: * to perform reflections on the causes and the consequences of the change in the man-forest relationship and on the opportunity to acknowledge new expectations and needs arisen from society towards the forestry sector through participation; * to define, through study cases, a procedure capable of integrating participation into landscape forest planning and to develop a method suitable for all the different situations in Italy * to evaluate the perception of the forest and of forest management within the local communities; * to integrate the traditional knowledge with the technical content of the plan; * to make the population aware of the planning process; * to carry out the mapping of the stakeholders; * to involve, through a targeted reach-out, stakeholders who would otherwise not have been able to voice their concerns.

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Writing News Faulkner Estate Lost a Lawsuit against Woody Allen

The lawsuits based on the alleged violation of copyright laws grow ever more common with every passing year and rarely make it to breaking news segments of newspapers and TV shows. The lawsuit of Faulkner Literary Rights LLC against Sony Pictures, however, was weird even by the modern standards. It concerned the nine-word phrase said by actor Owen Wilson in Woody Allen’s movie Midnight in Paris, which sounds as follows: â€Å"The past is not dead. Actually, it’s not even past. You know who said that? Faulkner†. According to the representatives of Faulkner estate, this phrase infringes their rights because the screenplay uses the fragment from the novel Requiem for a Nun without compensation or permission. The original phrase read as â€Å"The past is never dead. It’s not even the past† – that it, the sentence said in the film wasn’t even a word for word quotation. Nevertheless, the copyright protectors considered their lawsuit to be completely justified, because the phrase contained the â€Å"essence† of the original phrase and the novel in general and therefore belongs to them. However, as can be seen from this piece of news, common sense sometimes prevails even in our times. Federal Mississippi judge Michael Mills did not find the estate’s point of view to be legally correct – according to him, both qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that the nine-word phrase in question is of minute importance to society (differently from the original work) and to the work of art as a whole. It was clearly seen that even the judge was annoyed at the behavior of Faulkner’s estate: he ended his argumentation by saying that the court has got acquainted both with the book and the film in question and is extremely thankful that the parties didn’t ask him to compare The Sound and the Fury (another Faulkner’s novel, well-known to be quite hard to comprehend) with Sharknado (a recent B-movie about sharks falling out of the sky), obviously pointing out the absurdity of the initial request. It is unknown whether Faulkner Literary Rights LLC is going to appeal against this verdict, but the possibility of another court making another decision seems to be rather slim at the moment. This lawsuit points out two things: firstly, that the copyright holders grow ever more aggressive and are ready to file the most absurd and ridiculous lawsuits. Secondly, that their opinion is becoming marginalized (albeit slowly) – even the representatives of judicial system sometimes show signs of being tired of their behavior. After all, what we see here is not protection of somebody’s rights (Faulkner died in 1962 and current copyright holders don’t have anything to do with his literary work), but arbitrary application of law in hope of getting some extra profit.

Friday, December 27, 2019

No Country For Old Men - 1465 Words

In the film No Country for Old Men, directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, two main themes that were communicated were changing times and the idea of right and wrong. In this film: a drug deal gone results in Llewelyn Moss finding a briefcase full of money and running away with it. Chigurh (a cold blooded murderer) tracks Llewelyn to try and find the money, resulting in guns fired and people killed. The themes of changing times and right and wrong were sufficiently portrayed through the techniques of cinematography, non-diegetic voice over, symbolism, dialogue and lighting, the combination of techniques were also used to portray these themes. Firstly, the idea of changing times is evident in the beginning scene through the verbal feature of non-diegetic voice over from Ed Tom Bell. †I was sheriff of this county when I was twenty-five years old. Hard to believe. Grandfather was a lawman. Father too. Me and him were sheriff at the same time†¦Some of the old-time sheriffs never even wore a gun. A lot of folks find that hard to believe†¦I always liked to hear about the old- timers. Never missed a chance to do so. You cannot help but compare yourself against the old timers. Can’t help but wonder how they would have operated these times.† The way this speech was delivered with a raspy tone to the voice helped the audience to understand how Ed had grown up through the times when life was simple. Two visual features that helped to portray the theme of changing times are cinematographyShow MoreRelatedNo Country For Old Men1365 Words   |  6 PagesSelman Kara VISM 2001 – Introduction to Film Studies October 28th, 2015 Short Essay 2: Comparative Essay No Country For Old Men (2007) is a neo-Western thriller written, directed and edited by Joel and Ethan Coen. The film, based on the 2005 novel by Cormac McCarthy is set in Texas, USA and concerns an illegal drug deal gone awry in the deserted backcountry. No Country for Old Men features Josh Brolin as protagonist Lewellyn Moss, Tommy Lee Jones as protagonist Sheriff Ed Tom Bell, and JavierRead MoreNo Country For Old Men1103 Words   |  5 PagesEthan and Joel Coen’s No Country for Old Men (2007), the Western thriller film based off Cormac McCarthy’s novel written in 2005, implements narratives that reflect the criminal justice system in modern society. The film offers an interpretation on the criminal justice system through text and subtext. The text of the film argues for fate, predestination, and luck while the subtext serves as a support beam through lighting, imagery, and in this film’s case, a lack of music. Further support of theRead MoreNo Country For Old Men1745 Words   |  7 Pagesfilm No Country for Old Men is a Western, a viewer may develop some preconceived notions on what the narrative will include: ten-g allon hats, shiny law-enforcer badges, and a clock struck at high noon. While the former two may technically be included in the film, said viewer will likely be shocked at how far off their assumptions were. The Coen Brothers used some aspects of the traditional Western when making this film, but turned the rest of the genre on its head. No Country for Old Men exists inRead MoreNo Country For Old Men2051 Words   |  9 PagesCormac McCarthy’s No Country for Old Men has created controversial views on the significance of this novel. This piece involves a drug deal gone wrong when Llewelyn Moss, a veteran, happens to stumble upon three dead bodies, heroine, and a briefcase full of 2 million dollars. Told in different perspectives, the story continues with Moss on the run from a psychopathic killer Anton Chigurh in search of the money while also being tracked down by Sheriff Bell. Critics like James Wood from The New YorkerRead MoreNo Country for Old Men1600 Words   |  7 Pag es Filled with a plethora of themes and convictions, Cormac McCarthy’s No Country for Old Men excels in its endeavor to maintain the reader’s mind racing from cover to cover. The setting is the Texas-Mexico boarder; the story embodying a modernized western-themed Greek tragedy filled with drug runners and automatic weapons. Llewelyn Moss, a Vietnam veteran, finds himself on the run from forces that seem to be an instrument of karmic consequence. While on the run, Llewelyn is given the opportunityRead MoreAnalysis Of No Country For Old Men1014 Words   |  5 PagesIn the film â€Å"No Country for Old Men,† there are many aspects that make it a fantastic piece of work. The authors A.O. Scott, Anthony Lane, and Christopher Orr all write brilliant reviews that praise the film as well as pick apart its shortcomings. However, none of the authors touched on the one seemingly obvious piece to the puzzle, which is the title. â€Å"No Country for Old Men† is a title that stands out among many others, and it does not speak for itself the way that many movie titles do. The titleRead MoreEssay on No Country for Old Men1619 Words   |  7 PagesBitter about the evolution of the corruption of society, Sheriff Ed Tom Bell plays the official hero clinging to old traditions and reminiscing about the old days in No Country for Old Men by Cormac McCarthy. Delusions of a peaceful utopia during the time his grandpa Jack was a sheriff has left Bell looking at the world through hopeless eyes; a world on its knees with only one explanation for its demise: Satan. Not necessarily a religious man, Sheriff Bell, when asked if he believes in Satan, remarks:Read MoreAnalysis Of `` No Country For Old Men ``1247 Words   |  5 PagesIn Cormac McCarthy’s â€Å"No Country For Old Men,† fate plays a significant role in the novel and is present in the lives of each of the characters he portrays. Fate, as def ined in the dictionary, is â€Å"the will or principle or determining cause by which things in general are believed to come to be as they are or events to happen as they do.† The theme of fate is demonstrated in all of the characters in the novel, but most evidently in Llewellyn Moss, Ed Tom Bell, Carla Jean, Carson Wells, and Anton ChigurhRead MoreNo Country for Old Men Essay2186 Words   |  9 PagesNitish Bali Mrs. Caporiccio ENG4U1 – 05 7 June 2013 The Attainment of Individuation in No Country for Old Men Society is built upon a foundation of norms, but not all individuals adhere to said norms, some are outliers. If the actions of an individual causes pain onto another, society defines that the normal reaction for that individual would be to exhibit a state of empathy, but this is not always the case, as there are those who do not feel or exhibit the normal psychological reactions toRead MoreHunting For Men And Meaning : No Country For Old Men1233 Words   |  5 PagesHunting for Men and Meaning in No Country for Old Men This movie is one of many classic movies that have the ultimate understanding of life and the human physiological behavior. This movie entitles three mechanisms of hunting to describe critical aspects of life, hunting for animals, hunting for men and hunting for meaning. Hunting is the act of tracking and taking a life; this act differs from hunting an animal to a human. This particle can teach a lot of principles like being patient, good timing

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism - 1904 Words

Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism Simon Osorio Stanbridge College HUM 1020 (ITT/ITS) Daniel Else March 25, 2013 Assignment #1 Hinduism, Buddhism Jainism, and Sikhism are all Eastern religions with similar philosophical beliefs. In Hinduism you embrace a great diversity of different beliefs, a fact that can be easy confusing to western religions which are accustomed to creeds, confessions, and carefully-worded beliefs of statements. In Hinduism you can believe a wide variety of things about God, and the universe. There are some beliefs common to nearly all forms of Hinduism that can be shown, and these common beliefs are generally regarded as boundaries outside which they are considered to be heresy or non-Hindu religion. The†¦show more content†¦Prajua basically is the discernment, insight, wisdom, enlightenment that one achieves once a Buddhist mind is pure and calm. All that practice Buddhism also are aware of the four noble truths, Dukkha, Samudaya, Niodah, and Magga. These truths simply state suffering exists, recognition that there is a cause for suffering, there is an end to suffering and in order to end suffering, you must follow the Eightfold Path. The first path consists of Samma ditthi, the right understanding of the Four Noble Truths. The second path is Sammas sankappa, the right thinking and following of the right path in life. The third path is called Samma vaca and this is the right speech meaning no lying, criticism, condemning, gossiping, or the use of harsh language. Samma kammanta is the fourth path which says the right conduct by following the Five Precepts. Samma ajiva which states the right livelihood to support yourself without harming others. Samma vayama is the right effect to promote good thoughts and conquer evil thoughts. Samma sati is the right mindfulness that one becomes aware of your body, mind and feelings. The eigh th path would be Samma Samadhi which states the right concentration that one can meditate to achieve a higher state of consciousness. Jainism is another religion of India, it has very close relations with other main religions of India like Hinduism and Buddhism. ItShow MoreRelatedTypes Of Indian Religions : Indian Religion916 Words   |  4 Pagesknown Indian religion is Hinduism. However, there are other religions, which no one has heard of such as, Sikhism, Jainism and Buddhism. Most people assume that just because your Indian you have to be Hindu but that’s not necessarily true. Although, these religions come from the same Indian culture they have different views and beliefs. For instance, Sikhism is the newest Indian religion. The religion was created back in 1500 A.D. The founder’s name was Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Sikhism religion follows theRead MoreEssay on Indian Culture1467 Words   |  6 Pagesthat started in India. The two most well known religions are Hinduism and Buddhism. The other religions include Jainism and Sikhism, while Christianity and Islam are also practiced in India. The graph below shows the dispersion of religion in India14: Your browser may not support display of this image. The majority of people in India are Hindus as they make up 80.5% of the population, whereas Islam is in second with 13.4%. Hinduism is considered to be one of the oldest religions and the onlyRead MoreIs India A Country Of Ethnic Religious And Linguistic Pluralism Par Excellence?1364 Words   |  6 Pagesreligions in India, Vedism and Hinduism could be considered the beginning of religious diversity in the subcontinent. Although Hinduism is regarded as the oldest religion in the world, Vedism is the oldest stratum of religious activity in India. It takes its name from the collections of sacred texts known as the Vedas. The Rigveda, known as the earliest text of the collection, is composed of 1,028 hymns and 10,600 verses in Sanskrit. The vedic religion evolved into Hinduism later on which is a federationsRead Moreworld view chart writing assignment Eddie Lundy Essay1707 Words   |  7 Pagesits own way and they find representation in various forms like demons and angels in Christianity and Devas and Danavas in Hinduism. But the concept of good and evil has always been there and in old times people considered everything that made them unhappy evil - even diseases - and everything that made them happy good. Evil and good are considered to be interdependent in Hinduism. When one exists the other will also exist or evil also exists in the shadows of good or that evil is necessary. The existenceRead MoreIndia Is A Western Country Near Asia1457 Words   |  6 Pagescountry while sailing the Indian Ocean. From there, the country flourished into a nation. India has four native religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism all originated in India, and have now become prominent religions all over the globe. These religions each have different kinds of music associated with the ceremonies and traditions connected to the culture. Hinduism for example has music called, bhajans, and this music is essential to the followers of this religion. Bhajans is music thatRead MoreEastern Religion Philosophy of Care1740 Words   |  7 Pagesfree of suffering, according to Buddhism). The Eastern religions and philosophies all give varying accounts of karma, samsara, moksha, and nirvana.This paper will examine Sikhism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, analyze their belief systems, and show how they compare and contrast with one another and with Christianity. Sikhism Sikhism was founded at the beginning of the 16th century in Punjab by Guru Nanak. His philosophy was similar to that of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Nanak observed the way in whichRead MoreClassification of Religions1509 Words   |  7 Pagesfollowing six beliefs: Angels, the Holy Books of Islam, Prophets, Judgment Day, Predestination and The Sharia. 2) INDIAN RELIGIONS: Indian religion is a classification for beliefs that began in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. These beliefs are furthermore classified as Eastern religions. Although Indian beliefs are attached through the annals of India, they constitute a broad variety of devout groups and Indian beliefs are not confined to the Indian subcontinentRead MoreThe Evolution Of The Human Body996 Words   |  4 Pagesconsists of various religions with a brief explanation of what their beliefs are. The site includes seven different religions, including: Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, and Sikhism. During the history course, students have learned about majority of these religions, which are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism. Jainism and Sikhism were not thoroughly covered from what students have learned over the semester. This website is not only descriptions about religionsRead MoreHinduism : A Major Religious And Cultu ral Tradition Of South Asia1677 Words   |  7 Pagessubcontinent, Hinduism is the world s third largest religion and the oldest living religion, ranging from 2500 BCE to present. Hinduism referred to as, â€Å"A major religious and cultural tradition of South Asia, which developed from the Vedic religion.† Many people have searched for any documentation or evidence of the founder of Hinduism only to conclude  that Hinduism was a collection of several paths of wisdom and reasoning rather than a specific founder. For this reason, Hinduism has been open toRead MoreComparative Religions Encyclopedia Of The Jewish People1277 Words   |  6 Pagesword for god. Allah is the only god of the Islamic religion. Allah has no gender, and allah is used as respected and dignity, and believe allah is the only god. The islamic people believe that he is the sustainer, healer, and protector. B. Buddhism: Buddhism is as spiritual faith that traditional focuses on own personal spiritual development. This faith strongly believes on the concept of karma and teaches about it from the youngest age. Baha’I: Baha’I is one of the youngest of worlds major religions

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Renewable Energy Generation in South Australia-Free-Samples

Question: Discuss about the Sources of Renewable Energy Generation in South Australia. Answer: Introduction There are both renewable and non-renewable sources of electricity generation in Southern Australia. A renewable source of energy depletion is the one that replenishes fast upon consumption; the supply does not deplete from consumption. On the other hand, a non-renewable source depletes with consumption since the replenish rate is low; this means that supply is limited. These sources contributes with varying proportion to electricity in the market. This paper shall determine both of these sources and also determine their proportion of contribution in the market. There is increase need for a shift to renewable sources of energy (Zahar, Peel Godden, 2013).One of the most important renewable source of energy to be covered in this paper is the Lithium ion battery. The introduction of this storage of lithium ion Battery will have a positive impact on the supply for electricity in Australia. The paper will elaborate such changes and will discuss the need for the government to support this venture. The paper tells us that this supply will increase the proportion of contribution for the renewable sources in the future. We shall also identify the potential change in price of electricity in the market after the complete integration of this storage system. Renewable and Non-renewable sources of Energy generation Some of the South Australian sources of renewable energy generation includes solar and wind; the solar energy is obtained from the rooftops by the use of solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems (Sa.gov.au, 2017). These solar system are dependent on sunlight; the number of South Australian households who have installed the solar rooftop PVs are more than 200,000. The electricity produced through these systems is used by the households and the excess is sent to main electricity grid. The South Australian wind farms are dependent on wind and when wind is strong there is an increased generation of electricity for the customers. Some of the South Australian sources of non-renewable energy generation includes natural gas and diesel. The main source on non-renewable source is the natural gas where approximately 60% of the total South Australian natural gas is used for electricity generation. The supply that is obtained from power stations that are fired by diesel is relatively small. The stations are small are mostly are in operation only during the period of peak demand for electricity. Fig: Renewable and Non-renewable contribution to South Australian electricity South Australian government had in plan a target to achieve a 50% contribution of energy from renewable sources in the future 2025 (Abc.net.au, 2017). However, the last contribution of this renewable source (wind and solar) was already beyond 50%. According to Wills (2017), Premier Jay Weatherills target of Australia achieving a 50% renewable energy by 2025 was achieved eight years earlier; the proportion of renewable source at April 2017 was 53% which left 47% to be obtained from non-renewable sources. However, the article presented by Parkinson (2017) noted that the contribution by renewable sources was 57% which left only 43$ to be obtained from non-renewable sources; this is the data that is presented in the pie chart above. The contribution of wind power to the 2015/16 states demand was approximately 38%; this contribution jumped in 2016 and a further jump in 2017. Snowtown and Hornsdale are the two wind farms that came on line to raise the contribution of wind power. Non0renewa ble sources of energy such as carbon, coal and oil were on an increased criticize due to the alarming degradation of the environment from their consumption. The goal of the Australian government is to lower the contribution of non-renewable sources to the minimum level possible and active a 100% supply of renewable energy in the future (Diesendorf, 2017). Impacts of the Lithium Ion Battery on Electricity Market The main aim of the building of South Australian worlds largest Lithium ion battery was for securing power (Scopelianos, Fedorowytsch Garcia, 2017). The battery will be an all-time stabilizer of the power network and in case of a shortfall it will provide some backup power. This battery will raise the grids efficiency after completion as it will be the worlds largest storage of battery energy. Efficiency will also be raised because the periods of low cost of electricity production will be taken advantage of; during this period, there is high supply of electricity and thus the extra supply will be used in charging the battery (Musk, 2017). During the period of high costs of electricity production when electricity supply is low, the battery will be used in meeting the shortage. The bottom line of the implementation of the Lithium ion battery is that there will a stabilization of the power supply in South Australia. The state will be able to have a sufficient supply all the way and thu s prices will also stabilize. The initial prices of Australian electricity has been so high and the development of the renewable sources in the current years have seen a fall in the prices. The high current prices are attributed to the raised costs of electricity transmission. Fig: South Australian electricity demand and supply The initial equilibrium x is at quantity level Qa and sold at a price Pa. This initial price is higher because the insufficient storage of power is contributing to pressure on the inadequate supply of power. The supply laws accounts for higher prices whenever the quantity supplied is low and the demand remains higher. The lithium ion battery is expected to offer great help to the power storage issue; this will ensure that there will be a higher quantity to meet the South Australian energy power demand. The complete integration will therefore cause the supply curve to shift rightwards from Sa to Sb. a new equilibrium y will be created at the new supply level; this new equilibrium will be characterized by a lower price level and a higher quantity level. Consumers will therefore pay lower prices for power consumption and the pressure on South Australian energy prices will be lowered (Pham, 2017). The impact of the implementation of the Lithium ion battery will therefore be to lower cons umer prices and raise energy supply. South Australian governments Policy Initiative to Promote Lithium Ion Battery Venture The government of Australia may play an important part of developing the renewable energy industry. This could be by an increased investment in this industry through an increased level of funding. Weatherill (2017) noted that South Australian government announced in March 2017 a plan to make the sate more self-reliant by taking charge of its energy security in the future. The major reason why the government is concerned with the energy industry and thus need to impose policy measure is because the South Australian state faced statewide blackout on September 2016 and has been constantly facing widespread load shedding (Harmsen McMahon, 2017). There is therefore an increased need to achieve a stable power supply at all costs. There is a planned $500 million for expanding the Australian energy industry, the government can allocate a significant amount of money to the building of the Lithium ion battery as it would contribute to the increased provision of renewable power which is the go vernments future goals. Dunn (2017) noted that the government already has in place $150 million set aside for renewable energy; it could add an extra spending to make this sum sufficient to complete the construction of this battery. It is stated that the projects costs would rise by $50 million if this project is not completed on the stated schedule. The government should ensure that this project is completed on time by funding the project significantly. It could also ensure that the costs of building the battery is lowered by lowering the taxation rate for the low materials used in the building of this battery. The government should ensure that signing of the grid interconnection agreement is done as soon as possible to enable Tesla to complete the project before summer. The proposers of this project had planned to complete it before 1st Decembers 2017. The major argument behind the increased government funding is to ensure that the government will have complete ownership of this battery in order to be able to stabilize prices easily. Private ownership would cost the government extra spending since at time it would be required to subsidize the supply coming from the battery for supply to be made at a lower price. Therefore it can be concluded that fiscal policy of increased government spending would be the essential policy to su pport this venture. References Abc.net.au. (2017). SA has already reached its 2025 renewable energy target. ABC News. Retrieved 5 October 2017, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-04-10/south-australia-renewable-energy-target-reached-early/8429722. Diesendorf, M. (2017). How South Australia can function reliably while moving to 100% renewable power. The Conversation. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://theconversation.com/how-south-australia-can-function-reliably-while-moving-to-100-renewable-power-73199. Dunn, M. (2017). Everything you need to know about Teslas battery in South Australia. NewsComAu. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://www.news.com.au/technology/innovation/inventions/everything-you-need-to-know-about-teslas-battery-in-south-australia/news-story/a989f74cfccb8a1211de83f5becc60ed. Harmsen, N., McMahon, A. (2017). Tesla to supply world's biggest battery for SA, but what is it and how will it work? ABC News. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-07-07/what-is-tesla-big-sa-battery-and-how-will-it-work/8688992. Weatherill, J. (2017). Tesla to pair worlds largest lithium ion battery with Neoen wind farm in SA. Premier.sa.gov.au. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://www.premier.sa.gov.au/index.php/jay-weatherill-news-releases/7736-tesla-to-pair-world-s-largest-lithium-ion-battery-with-neoen-wind-farm-in-sa. Musk, E. (2017). Tesla to build world's biggest lithium ion battery in South Australia. The Guardian. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/jul/07/tesla-to-build-worlds-biggest-lithium-ion-battery-in-south-australia. Parkinson, G. (2017). South Australia already at 57% wind and solar in 2016/17. RenewEconomy. Retrieved 5 October 2017, from https://reneweconomy.com.au/south-australia-already-57-wind-solar-201617/. Pham, S. (2017). Elon Musk promises world's biggest lithium ion battery to Australia. CNNMoney. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://money.cnn.com/2017/07/07/technology/tesla-elon-musk-australia-world-biggest-lithium-ion-battery/index.html. Sa.gov.au. (2017). SA's electricity supply and market. Sa.gov.au. Retrieved 5 October 2017, from https://www.sa.gov.au/topics/energy-and-environment/energy-supply/sas-electricity-supply-and-market. Scopelianos, S., Fedorowytsch, T., Garcia, S. (2017). Elon Musk's Tesla to build world's biggest lithium ion battery to secure power for South Australia. Abc.net.au. Retrieved 6 October 2017, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-07-07/sa-to-get-worlds-biggest-lithium-ion-battery/8687268. Wills, D. (2017). Renewable energy passes 50 per cent target. Adelaidenow.com.au. Retrieved 5 October 2017, from https://www.adelaidenow.com.au/news/south-australia/sa-power-crisis-renewable-energy-production-in-sa-at-50-per-cent-eight-years-ahead-of-schedule/news-story/2e3a6fcb3c40a0ca61b25eba87206d68. Zahar, A., Peel, J. Godden, L. (2013). Australian climate law in global context. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Various Ethical Theories Analysis

Table of Contents Approaches to Ethical decisions Utilitarianism Kant’s moral approach Psychological egoism and ethical egoism Didactic stories Ethical virtues and ethics of conduct Reference List Approaches to Ethical decisions Ethics is a prerequisite for human existence. It is a mean of determining a sequence of action to be taken. Without ethics, individual actions would be unsystematic and purposeless. This paper analyses various theories learned in class. Besides, the writer categorizes them in hierarchy, basing on decision making within a given domain.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Various Ethical Theories Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Utilitarianism In a utilitarian system, a person portrays a tendency in fulfilling the needs of self as well as fulfilling other people’s needs. The principle in the utilitarian approach designates that; any action should involve certain prin ciples which create happiness within oneself and others. According to Nina (2005), an action that results in the moral rectitude and content should always be viewed as very useful. Using this approach, I will try to enrich the lives of people by adding value to their lives by increasing their satisfaction levels and reducing their sadness levels. Although at a time, it is very difficult to make people happy since what I might think makes them happy, doesn’t work always, but I will try very hard to reduce their sadness. Besides, I will employ the greatest-happiness principle as a key to my interaction with other people. I will aim at considering the moral course of my actions by using the levels of mixed feelings of happiness and unhappiness present in people. For instance, I will ensure that whatever right thing I do will bring an increase the level of happiness in people. However, some action which I will employ at the end brings about the feeling of pleasure and satisfactio n, then that action is morally right contrary to a situation whereby the action taken results in the wrong choice due to the feelings of pain and dissatisfaction. According to Nina (2005), any activity that provides pleasure is right and any action that provides pain is bad. This proposal seems fit since the feeling of pleasure, happiness and satisfaction is always good and right, whereas pain and displeasure always results in unhappiness.Advertising Looking for report on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Thus, I will ensure that my choice of an instrumental value is appropriate to achieve the desired results. The correct choice of the instrumental values results also in the attainment of an intrinsic value. Kant’s moral approach This moral theory is also known as the obligatory theory (deontology). Kant’s moral theory is in contrast with the utilitarian approach and it depicts a little relationship exists between true moral thinking and the consequences of an action (Nina, 2005). The Kant’s approach observes that esteem for the ethical law must be present. Based on this approach, I will argue that whenever an action is done in a good will, the cost (whether good or bad) does not count. For instance, a situation may arise in which a passerby who notices that the oncoming vehicle might hit a pupil who is playing on the road, and shouts a warning to the pupil which frightens the pupil causing her to panic and fall on the road thus being crushed to death, might be deemed as the warning scream from the passerby was meant to save the pupil. The passerby meant good with the warning since it was an alarm to the pupil to move away from the road. Therefore, the principality of right doing should be upheld though it doesn’t always make people happy and comfortable. Psychological egoism and ethical egoism Psychological and ethical egoism have to do with a great deal of selfishness, which is always thinking highly of oneself and criticizing the interests of other people. Being referred to as selfish seems to be unethical, we all agree that we all possess a certain degree of selfishness in us. According to the theory of psychological egoism, all of our doings are selfish since we were created like that. The selfish nature is part of humanity and getting rid of it is impossible (Nina, 2005). Selfishness mainly focuses on the security of one’s survival but is not a total disregard of other’s interests.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Various Ethical Theories Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For instance, someone may enjoy shooting to kill people who have not wronged him. If such a person is arrested and questioned about his acts, he may not have a valid reason for such criminal acts. The criminal may say that he only enjoys shooting to kill, that is, it is part of his hobby. Generally, people find themselves doing things such as; doing drugs, over drinking and smoking, which are not useful. Psychological egoism theory does not criticize selfish human deeds since it perceives the selfish deeds as being beyond human control. An individual can be very loving and concerned also be a psychological egoist. Didactic stories Didactic stories are stories with moral lessons which are mostly narrated to young children by an older person to impact a moral teaching in them. The use of didactic stories is a very effective method to impact moral lessons since the stories are very easy to memorize. Some facts are very complex to explain, but when they are relayed in didactic stories form, they become so easy to understand. For instance, most children don’t understand what death is, but whenever there parent or teacher narrates a story of a dead dog, the story helps them to relate well to the subject matter which is death. Stories can be relayed in various forms such as by the use of television, plays, books and many other forms. Ethical virtues and ethics of conduct These theories analyses the human ethical guidelines. That is, they are mainly focused on the culture of how human beings are supposed to behave ethically. As human beings, we develop the strong desire to be virtuous beings. A virtuous individual is one who is morally upright hence people can bank their trust levels on him. The society tends to judge a virtuous person as a ‘saint’ in such a way that this person is expected to uphold high levels of cleanliness, modesty and purity. The society sees a person who has committed a wrong act as a bad person and that who has committed a right act as a good person.Advertising Looking for report on ethics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Nina, R. (2005). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics, New York: McGraw-Hill. This report on Various Ethical Theories Analysis was written and submitted by user Josue Vega to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Why the embryo is a human being an Example of the Topic Health Essays by

Why the embryo is a human being Introduction The embryo is the beginning of the life of a human being. It results from the fusion of a male and a female gamete known as sperm and ova respectively at the time of fertilization until about 8 weeks after fertilization where it becomes a foetus. At this point, the embryo has undergone various stages of development. The issues of abortion and embryo research which result in the death of embryos have created much debate regarding whether the embryo is a human being or not. Arguments concerning biological development and the time when ensoulment occurs have been put forward to explain the status of the human being. Need essay sample on "Why the embryo is a human being" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed This explanation is dependent on the time at which life begins which varies for most pro-choice groups and medical practitioners and pro-lifers. This is due to various definitions of the beginning of human life such as at the time when the fetus is viable or at birth. For pro-life groups life begins at conception and this too is the start of pregnancy. Due to their different definitions the morality and ethics surrounding abortion and embryo research have found different explanations. Arguing that the embryo is not a person, indicates that there is specific time when the embryo becomes a human being. The embryo does not have the ability to act; neither does it look like a full grown person. This however cannot be used to defend the argument that it is not a human being. This would mean then, that a grain of corn by looking different from the full grown corn stalk ceases to be corn. The grain of corn therefore has the potency to mature into a stalk of corn. This is the concept of potency which enables the explanation of developmental changes in the embryo. These changes result in different appearances but the subject (the embryo) remains the same individual (0Rourke, 2005) Boethius defines a person as having characteristics of individuality and rationality. St. Thomas Aquinas went further to elaborate this definition by commenting that individuality stems from the fact that a person has some degree of separateness from another. Rationality according to Thomas Aquinas indicates control over ones actions and the ability to have initiative and act rather than being acted upon (0Rourke, 2005). The term person here is used to refer to human beings, creatures who are made up of matter and form (body and soul). John Locke on the other hand defines a person slightly differently. His definition forms the basis of most present day philosophers. This definition has elements of Aquinass definition. Locke did not deny the presence of substance rather; he put emphasis on the activities of a person. In Lockes definition, a person thinks, can identify pleasure, pain, happiness, misery and is capable of feeling them. A person also has concern for himself to the degree permitted by consciousness (0Rourke, 2005). According to Lockes definition it is therefore possible to be a human being and not be a person. This is especially so with a focus on the aspect of consciousness. Consequently, infants, fetuses, people in comatose states are human beings but non-persons (ORourke, 2005). Embryos would therefore seem to fall into this category of human non-persons. They are non-persons because at the time of their existence they have no consciousness and are not capable of pain, pleasure, happiness and misery. This definition of person seems to create a gap with the one of potency. However it seems that the theory of potency is more fundamental since the agreement is that the attributes of personhood are developed over time. This therefore means that a bridge can be created between the two definitions. The person who did not have consciousness may develop consciousness meaning that not having the ability to carry out activities of a person does not translate to an entire absence of personhood. Further, the adult human being progressed from once being a fetus, then an infant, a child and finally, an adult. With this progression, development of consciousness occurred with time. The development of the human embryo begins with a radical change of simple human being parts to form a new individual. These simple parts are the sperm and ova. For a human being to exist there has to be a specific number of chromosomes. This is true for all living organisms and the number of chromosomes varies with the species. When the number varies significantly, the organism is unable to survive, human beings included. For those human beings who have a varying number of chromosomes, the number does not vary much, for instance in individuals with Downs or Turners syndrome where the chromosomes are increased and decreased by one respectively. The germ cells, sperms and oocytes cannot be considered human beings, they only have 23 chromosomes. It is necessary for them to have half the number of chromosomes required for existence of a normal human being as this facilitates the fertilization process which results in an embryo, a human being with 46 chromosomes. Sperms and oocytes therefore have human life and are the result of a process of gametogenesis (maturation of germ cells), while the embryo results from fertilization (ORahilly and Muller, 1994). The sperms and oocytes possess human life by virtue of the fact that they are a part of a human being and are not wholly living humans. This is similar to the way the liver or the lung and kidneys are parts of humans and therefore have human life. A sperm and an oocyte can only have the ability to produce sperm and oocyte enzymes and protein respectively, unlike a human being that can produce a myriad of proteins and enzymes. Further, neither sperm nor oocyte itself can produce a human (Irving, 1999). This therefore makes the term fertilized egg a misnomer. Often the term oocyte and egg have been used interchangeably. To describe the product of fertilization as a fertilized egg is wrong simply because the egg/oocyte has 23 chromosomes and following fertilization it is a new entity with 46 chromosomes, hence the term fertilized egg becomes incorrect since a human being is already in place with a whole new set of chromosomes different fro those in the oocyte. Following the process of fertilization, the embryo that results is able to direct its own growth and development. The embryo has the characteristic of individuality common to all human beings as it is separate from its mother. It is also genetically unique and different from its mother though there may be similarities. The genetic difference and/ or uniqueness lies not in the number of chromosomes but in the content carried in these chromosomes. The uniqueness arises from the combination of chromosomes from different individuals (the mother and father). Following fertilization, the embryo differentiates not into another organism rather, its complexity and consciousness continues to increase. The embryo divides and becomes bigger and it goes through various stages named differently by scientists. These are a morula (at 4 days, a blastocyst during the 5th -7th day, a two layer (bilaminar embryo in the second week and a tri-laminar embryo in the third week (Moore and Persaud, 1998). A human embryo is therefore not a potential human being rather it is a human being with the potential to develop and grow into a person with consciousness and the ability to perform different activities. As per Boethius and Aquinass definition of person it already has individuality though it may lack rationality due to the fact that it is totally dependent on its mother and it has not developed the structures necessary for initiating action by itself. The theory of potency however comes into play here because the characteristic of rationality can be developed and is actually developed with time. More fundamentally to the definition of a human being, the embryo has substance and form evident from the fact that it can be detected by various techniques of visualizing in the mothers womb such ultrasound scan.. Inability to perform certain activities does not make the embryo any less human than a human being in a comatose state or one with certain physical disabilities like paraplegia. The tendency to call an embryo and/or fetus, it also perpetuates the idea that the embryo being neither boy nor girl is not a human being. This is however untrue since the product of fertilization can be either of the two. It is actually one of the two (boy or girl) depending on whether it was fertilized by an XX sperm or XY sperm. The difference is that the external genitalia and even internal organs that would make the difference obvious have not yet developed during the 8 week period. The idea that an embryo is neither male nor female is therefore a mistaken one. Adding a gender to the embryo adds more to the evidence of individuality and therefore to the evidence of being a human being. Attribution of rationality is often used as a means to describe the embryo as not being a human being. Rationality is physiologically supported by the brain. Development of the brain is a process that continues after birth, way into young adulthood. Irvin points out that apart from the brain, other physical features continue to develop after birth, these include the teeth and the breasts. The weight of the brain continues to increase up to 3 fold in the period between birth and the childs sixteenth birthday with the process of development being complete at around 25 years (Irvin, 1999). To therefore claim that the inability to be rational causes the embryo to cease being a person is to say that many young people have not yet become persons. Brain birth is explained to be a gradual process through which the human being acquires the functions of the neural system that can provide support for thinking and feeling. The concept of brain birth was put forward to run parallel to brain death where there is loss of function of the brain. Brain birth however does not adequately explain the bridge from incapacity to capacity for consciousness (Irvin, 1999). The neural system that is supposedly developing during the process of brain birth is not a brain and thus the claim that a human person starts at brain birth is invalid. To ascribe to this theory would mean that the brain birth and brain death have an almost equal level of symmetry and that one is more or less the opposite of the other which is untrue. An embryo is thus a human being with all the rights that human beings have. Definitions of human being and person have been applied to many issues concerning the embryo from abortion, item cell research, abortifacients, cloning, human embryo, and research and chimera formation. In having all these discussions, it is necessary to isolate myth and especially scientific myth from objective scientific facts. Many philosophical ideas have been used to explain human being and human person. All these ideas have an effect on public policies and individual choices, making it necessary for philosophy and science to bridge the gulf that is created by illegitimate impositions of one fields idea on another. This will lead to incorporation of sound ideas and accurate science in policy making and decision making. Works Cited D. Gareth Jones, Brain birth and personal identity, Journal of Medical Ethics 15:4, 1989, p. 178. Keith L. Moore and T.V.N. Persaud, The Developing Human, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1998 ORourke, Kevin, The Embryo as Person, International Congress on Bioethics, University of Santo Thomas, Manila, The Philippines, Ronan O'Rahilly and Fabiola Mller, 1994, Human Embryology & Teratology New York: Wiley-Liss,